If you have ever watched a live trial or law-related television show, you probably know a few general things about court proceedings: a judge presides over a case and the rules of evidence (Objection, your honor!) govern what parties can and cannot say and do. While there are similarities in how court proceedings and land use hearings operate, key distinctions exist. First, there is no separate judge and jury. The governing body or the zoning hearing board (collectively, the “Board”) does both. In addition, land use hearings, while structured, are designed to give the Board freedom in its decision process. This includes the Board’s power to appoint a hearing officer, relaxed rules of evidence (including the hearsay rule), and the opportunity for parties to present arguments and evidence and to conduct cross-examination. Continue Reading He Said, She Said: The Rules Surrounding Hearsay and Cross-Examination in Land Use Hearings
In January of this year, Governor Wolf put forth a series of Legislative Proposals meant to address critical infrastructure problems in Pennsylvania, including blight, particularly in rural Pennsylvania. He called this series of proposals Restore Pennsylvania. Governor Wolf simultaneously proposed paying for these initiatives through the imposition of a tax on the extraction of shale gas in the Commonwealth. While many of the proposals to address the infrastructure problems were well received, the funding of the programs through a shale gas tax has been more controversial. More information on the entire Restore Pennsylvania initiative can be found HERE.
Of interest to municipalities in the Commonwealth dealing with the problem of blighted properties is the section of the Governor’s proposal that deals specifically with that issue. The Governor’s proposal acknowledged that nearly all communities within the state have some level of blight. The cost of dealing with the problem varies, with small municipalities needing funding of perhaps $1 million dollars to address the issue, while larger municipalities, such as Altoona, having concluded that they need tens of millions of dollars to effectively combat the problem. Continue Reading Governor’s Wolf’s Plan for Addressing Blight in Pennsylvania
In case you missed it earlier today, our webinar on tools to combat blight is available here: Webinar Link
Matt Tunnell, of Lift Development and the Dauphin County Redevelopment Authority, joined Kandice Hull, Dana Chilson and myself to discuss some of the tools available to combat blight. The webinar provides great insight for developers, municipal officials, municipal staff, and anyone with an interest in property values, development/redevelopment, or infill opportunities.
After listening to the webinar, please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions.
For many years, the opinions of non-resident objectors – especially unsubstantiated opinions – were of little to no relevance in zoning hearings, including conditional use and special exception hearings. However, applicants and municipal officials could see more objectors from other municipalities present testimony and evidence at hearings because the Pennsylvania Supreme Court has endorsed the relevancy of that testimony and evidence in certain situations.
In EQT v. Borough of Jefferson Hills, the applicant sought conditional use approval for a natural gas well site in the Borough of Jefferson Hills. During the public hearing before borough council, objectors from other municipalities testified about the alleged negative effects on health and quality of life that they experienced from a similar well in a neighboring township that was operated by the conditional use applicant. Continue Reading Pennsylvania Supreme Court Alters the Conditional Use and Special Exception Landscape
In blog posts last year (available HERE and HERE), we reviewed the challenges that municipalities face in regulating short-term rentals under existing zoning ordinances that do not specifically address the use. One case we discussed was Slice of Life, LLC v. Hamilton Township Zoning Hearing Board, 164 A.3d 633 (Pa. Commw. Ct. 2017). The Commonwealth Court’s decision in Slice of Life was appealed and the Pennsylvania Supreme Court recently reversed the Commonwealth Court’s decision.
In Slice of Life, the Township issued an enforcement notice to the property owner alleging that the property was being used as a hotel or other type of transient lodging in violation of the zoning ordinance. According to the zoning ordinance, single-family residential was the only permitted use in the underlying zoning district. The Township’s zoning ordinance defined the term “family” as Continue Reading **UPDATE** Regulating Short-Term Rentals – The Pennsylvania Supreme Court Weighs In
Recently, Frank Chlebnikow, AICP and I co-presented a program entitled “Finding Valuable Commercial Space Under Parking Lots” at the Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors’ 97th Annual Educational Conference. The program discussed problems (and potential solutions) many communities are experiencing due to the increasing amount of vacant retail spaces in shopping malls and big-box retail stores. Most communities experience impacts such as a stagnating/declining tax base and operating revenue shortfalls, leading to a reduction in municipal services, loss of businesses and residents, limited property reinvestment, and increasing tax rates. But mature, built-out suburban and urban communities must also deal with the lack of undeveloped land, aging and inadequately maintained infrastructure, traffic congestion and addressing stormwater runoff issues while complying with federal/state mandates.
One thing is certain, the traditional mall and suburban commercial corridor model (a “shopping mall”) that includes one or more sprawling, single-story buildings dominated by retail and department store tenants surrounded by seas of parking lots, is not the future. Continue Reading Shopping Malls: This Ain’t the Dawn of the Dead
Solutions for Blight in Pennsylvania
Blight is a problem facing nearly every municipality in Pennsylvania. Learn about win/win solutions that allow developers to assist communities in tackling blighted properties. This webinar will include a discussion of eminent domain options, redevelopment authorities, land banks, and how public/private partnerships can be beneficial to all concerned.
Date: June 25, 2019
Time: 12:00 – 12:45 pm (EST)
Space is Limited for this Free Webinar.
All registrations can be done online at https://www.eventbrite.com/e/solutions-for-blight-in-pennsylvania-tickets-61885731890
We are accustomed to seeing some accommodations for emotional support animals in the housing context. Recently, a Borough’s zoning hearing board and the Court of Common Pleas were asked to resolve a similar issue in a zoning case. The facts and issues in the case touched on urban agriculture issues that are becoming increasingly more common in addition to the interpretation of certain terms in the Borough’s zoning ordinance. Like short-term rentals, emotional support animals and urban agriculture are uses that are not typically addressed in zoning ordinances, thereby leading to cases just like this.
A young boy with autism lived with his mother and grandfather in a two-family residential building on property owned by the grandfather and located in the Borough’s commercial zoning district. The boy’s family acquired eight ducks as therapeutic pets after he had a positive experience with a friend’s pet duck. The ducks were kept at the residential property, living outside in a fenced yard but also spending some time inside the house. The Borough had attempted to deal with the keeping of animals on a residential property in the past. Continue Reading When Are Ducks Pets?
Few things can sour the completion of an otherwise successful construction project more than a lingering mechanics’ lien claim—especially where the developer or project owner did not see it coming. Pennsylvania’s General Assembly took steps to assist developers and project owners in preventing against this scenario when it passed Act 142 of 2014, which led to the establishment of Pennsylvania’s State Construction Notices Directory (the “Directory”) in December 2016. This post, Part I of a two-part series, discusses the benefits of registering a project on the Directory. Part II will highlight how underutilized the Directory is in many parts of Pennsylvania.
The Directory is an online database that was developed and is now managed by the Pennsylvania Department of General Services. It is used for the filing and dissemination of certain project-related information on qualifying construction projects in Pennsylvania. When the cost of a private construction project meets or exceeds $1.5M, the project is eligible to be “registered” on the Directory. Project registration is wholly voluntary, and whether to register is a decision for the owner or developer. A project that is registered is known as a “searchable project” per the statutory terminology. Registering a project offers important benefits to developers and owners. Continue Reading The State Construction Notices Directory Offers Benefits to Developers and Project Owners in Pennsylvania
In our first post on accessory uses, we introduced the value of accessory uses as a tool for permitting a land use that otherwise might not be permitted as a principal use. We also discussed the two-part test for determining whether a use is accessory – is it (i) customarily incidental to and (ii) subordinate to the principal use? In this post, we will conclude our discussion on accessory uses by looking at the “customarily incidental” part of the analysis.
The most important concept to remember when evaluating whether a use is “customarily incidental” to a principal use is not to assume that there must be evidence of a traditional relationship between the principal use and proposed accessory use. All too often, zoning officers are inclined to take the position that something cannot be an accessory use because they have never seen the proposed accessory use together with a principal use. This approach would lead to a stagnation of land uses that is not reflective of how uses evolve over time. Continue Reading Accessory Uses Part II: Worth Much More Than a Secondary Thought